Source: Discovery News
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Source: Discovery News
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There are several conspiracy theories that involve aviation. The most famous of these involve the aliens of Roswell and the tragic events of September 11th. However, there is one conspiracy theory that has a measurable amount of believers that is easily refuted with the simple laws of science and statistics. This is, of course, chemtrails.
Those who subscribe to the Chemtrail theory believe that the entire aviation industry, military and civilian, are tasked by the U.S. government to spray artificial clouds high above the ground in our atmosphere with the intent of altering our climate or inoculating the population with inhalable drugs. This theory is based on the visible identification of the common aircraft contrail, and a reliance on the fallacy that it can be identified as something else.
So in a final sweeping motion, what do you say we explain-away this whole chemtrail thing after all, shall we?
When an organic material is burned, it will produce different compounds: soot, smoke, and various oxides. What is produced will vary depending on the material that was burned and the process in which it was burned. However there are two things that are generally universal in the burning of organics; water and carbon dioxide.
Generally, neither of these can be seen with the naked eye unless temperatures are cold and the steam condenses into visible water vapor. This is common from smoke stacks, the tailpipes of automobiles, or even your breath in the winter months.
The gasoline engine creates about one gallon of water for each gallon of gasoline consumed. When the engine is shut down, the remaining water oxidizes (or rusts) the exhaust and the engine’s cylinders. This limits the life of the exhaust system and the engine, but is not a major problem and is accepted as part of the normal process and life cycle of the internal combustion engine.
This water, seemingly innocuous, became lethal in the Second World War for the crews of the Boeing B-17 bomber. The four Wright turbocharged engines in the B-17 allowed it to climb above 30,000 feet. The humid exhaust of the engines quickly froze in the minus 40 degree air (temperatures become significantly colder at higher altitudes) leaving long white clouds behind the bombers indicating their presence and precise location to the German fighters. The safety of being at altitude was compromised by these telltale condensation trails, or contrails.
The military worked to find a solution and discovered that certain acidic compounds injected into the exhaust eliminated contrails. This solution became available after the conclusion of the war and was immediately obsolete with the advent of radar, which allowed airplanes to be “seen” regardless of the time of day or weather. This idea was later briefly resurrected with the Northrop B-2 stealth bomber, though ultimately not incorporated into the design.
The post-war, high altitude commercial airliners typically operated around 25,000 feet. Only the low production Boeing 377, though still propeller-driven, could climb above 30,000 feet and was most commonly operated as an intercontinental airliner. Because of this, contrails were rarely seen in the United States prior to the 1960s.
The year 1958 was a watershed year in commercial aviation. Boeing introduced the 707 and Douglas the DC-8, while a year later Convair debuted the 880. The turbojet engines on these airliners thrived in the cold thin air found above 30,000 feet and they were routinely operated in these flight levels. In the 1960′s, contrails became commonplace across the United States, especially along designated jet airways between ground based navigation aids. When the temperature is low enough and the humidity high enough, the 1,500 gallons of water produced every hour by these jetliners was transformed into four cirrus clouds.
When the humidity is very high, the contrails will remain for hours. In moderate humidity the contrails may last . . .
I’ve wondered why do people still believe in certain conspiracy theories, even after they have been totally debunked, or proven to be logically improbable.
From my observations of conspiracy theorists, I believe that there are five main reasons why some people still believe in conspiracy theories, even after they have been debunked.
Here are those five reasons:
One of the 9/11 conspiracy theories that some people believe, is that the Pentagon was hit by a missile, and not a Boeing 757.
Most people who do believe this, believe a missile must have hit, because they believe that with not much piloting training, a person could not actually fly a jumbo jet into the side of a building that’s only a few stories high, and that the damage to the building doesn’t appear to them as the type of damage that jumbo jet would do.
As everyone knows, in 2010 a BP oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico blew up, causing one of the worst environmental disasters in history. While almost everyone admits, including BP it self, that BP is solely responsible for this disaster, there are some people who believe that this wasn’t an accident caused by BP’s unwillingness improve safety. They believe that this was intentional.
Continue Reading: The Soap Box: Embarrassing Conspiracy Theories: BP Oil Spill.
Conspiracy theorists often perform certain actions, or certain “tools” of their trade to help promote the conspiracy theories they believe in. These “tools” tend to be mostly annoying, usually unethical, and in some cases, even illegal.
This is a list of the five “tools” conspiracy theorists tend to use: 5 Tools of the Conspiracy Theorist Trade.
The following three part series is courtesy of Muertos, owner and operator of Thrive Debunked – a blog dedicated to fact checking errors and false statements contained in the conspiracy theory documentary “Thrive“.
|Today, the concept of “alien abduction” is now a cultural meme. Virtually everyone in the Western world, and probably a good chunk of the non-Western world, is familiar with the paradigm: the belief that extraterrestrials visit the Earth, occasionally kidnap unsuspecting persons, subject them to weird experiments (usually involving an anal probe or some other humiliating procedure) and set them loose again. Alien abduction is now mainstream enough to be mentioned on comedy shows like South Park and Mad TV and gag lines in blockbuster movies like Independence Day. It’s one of those fringe topics that arouses intense, but usually temporary, curiosity.|
|In part 1 (above), I wrote about the book Communion by Whitley Strieber, which so far as I know remains to date the best-selling book ever written on UFOs or related subjects. Strieber’s central claim was that he was abducted and sexually assaulted by nonhuman beings, which he calls “visitors,” on December 26, 1985 (a quarter century ago this week) and that after this experience he realized he’d been interacting with the “visitors” for most of his life. In this blog I continue the discussion of Strieber and his claims, focusing on his sequels, Transformation (1988) and Breakthrough (1995), as well as the film of Communion made in 1989.|
|In the two previous blogs in this series (Part I (above), Part II (above)) I examined Communion and Transformation, the books written by horror author Whitley Strieber in which he claimed that he has been abducted by aliens repeatedly for most of his life. Communion came out in 1987 and began with the claim that Strieber was abducted from his New York cabin on December 26, 1985, which was 25 years ago this week. From there his claims evolved to include the following: (i) the beings that abducted him, which he initially declined to state were objectively real, actually are physical reality; (ii) that these “visitors” are conducting a large-scale program of “contact” with the human race; (iii) that the point of this “contact” is to transform human consciousness and get us to pay attention to spiritual matters; and (iv) that there are a number of weird side effects of “contact,” such as the ability to have out of body experiences (OBEs).|